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308
Stickied postModerator of r/askscience

Please read this entire post carefully and format your application appropriately.

This post is for new panelist recruitment! The previous one is here.

The panel is an informal group of redditors who are either professional scientists or those in training to become so. All panelists have at least a graduate-level familiarity within their declared field of expertise and answer questions from related areas of study. A panelist's expertise is summarized in a color-coded AskScience flair.

Membership in the panel comes with access to a panelist subreddit. It is a place for panelists to interact with each other, voice concerns to the moderators, and where the moderators make announcements to the whole panel. It's a good place to network with people who share your interests!


You are eligible to join the panel if you:

  • Are studying for at least an MSc. or equivalent degree in the sciences, AND,

  • Are able to communicate your knowledge of your field at a level accessible to various audiences.


Instructions for formatting your panelist application:

  • Choose exactly one general field from the side-bar (Physics, Engineering, Social Sciences, etc.).

  • State your specific field in one word or phrase (Neuropathology, Quantum Chemistry, etc.)

  • Succinctly describe your particular area of research in a few words (carbon nanotube dielectric properties, myelin sheath degradation in Parkinsons patients, etc.)

  • Give us a brief synopsis of your education: are you a research scientist for three decades, or a first-year Ph.D. student?

  • Provide links to comments you've made in AskScience which you feel are indicative of your scholarship. Applications will not be approved without several comments made in /r/AskScience itself.


Ideally, these comments should clearly indicate your fluency in the fundamentals of your discipline as well as your expertise. We favor comments that contain citations so we can assess its correctness without specific domain knowledge.

Here's an example application:

   Username: /u/foretopsail
   General field: Anthropology
   Specific field: Maritime Archaeology
   Particular areas of research include historical archaeology, archaeometry, and ship construction. 
   Education: MA in archaeology, researcher for several years.
   Comments: 1, 2, 3, 4.

Please do not give us personally identifiable information and please follow the template. We're not going to do real-life background checks - we're just asking for reddit's best behavior. However, several moderators are tasked with monitoring panelist activity, and your credentials will be checked against the academic content of your posts on a continuing basis.

You can submit your application by replying to this post.

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316
Stickied post

I'm Dr Melanie Windridge, a plasma physicist who combines science with adventure. In Spring 2018 I climbed Mount Everest and explored the science that helps climbers survive at high altitude and under extreme conditions.

Along the way I spoke to experts and created a video series called "The Science of the Summit". It's hosted on the Institute of Physics' YouTube channel and covers statistics, fitness and training, risk and motivation, oxygen systems, mountain weather, the chemistry of clothing, communications in remote locations, physiology and medicine, and helicopter rescue.

An improved understanding of high-altitude physiology, acclimatisation and nutrition was instrumental in the British success on Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay were the first people ever to stand on the top of Everest. They were supported not only by their expedition climbing team mates but also by the work of physiologist Griffith Pugh and others. Since their successful summit, science, technology and our understanding of physiology at high altitude have further improved.

In 2016 I published "Aurora: In Search of the Northern Lights". The book is a journey of discovery and explores the visual beauty, legends and science of the northern lights, including the developing threat of space weather. I'm fascinated by the aurora. It's a marvel unlike any other in which the powers of astronomy, geology, magnetism and atomic physics combine to create one of the wonders of the natural world.

My explorations of the aurora have led me to many Arctic destinations such as Sweden, Norway, Canada, Iceland and Svalbard.

I have written a blog about Science at the Extremes for several years. You can have a look and subscribe to it here: http://melaniewindridge.co.uk/blog_home

I'm here to talk about science and adventure - my experiences on Everest and in the Arctic with the aurora, and the science and technology that support high-altitude climbers and how they have improved and developed over the years. I'll start around 4pm UT (11am ET). AMA!

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Comments are locked

Hey Reddit: Want to write better? Eliminate grammatical mistakes, wipe out wordiness, and let your ideas shine. See for yourself why over 15 million users are hooked on Grammarly's free writing app.

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Is it physical structures like microscopic hooks/anchors? Some kind of biological "adhesive"?

Edit: Question answered. Several very knowledgeable people have done a great job of explaining that there is no "attachment" rather there is no end between bone/tendon and muscle, they all just merge into each other. Which is pretty amazing when you think about it. Thanks everyone.

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So let's say you wake up in the 3rd stage even if only for a minute and you sleep in again, do you continue with the 3rd/4th stage or do you start all over again?

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Sorry but this stupid question is in my mind since this morning.

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How do engineers and manufacturers verify that the microphones they produce have a flat frequency response? Wouldn't such verification require a sound transducer that displaces a known volume of air to work over a similar frequency range, or multiple transducers of overlapping frequency bands? Do such standards exist? If so, how are they calibrated?

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On one hand, we are told that pressure in a gas comes from the molecules bouncing against everything and itself and exerting a force against the surfaces they collide with.

On the other hand, we hear that the pressure of the atmosphere comes from the fact that there is so much atmosphere being weighed down above us.

Where is the connection or bridge between these two?

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I'm basically wondering if in a nebulae you could hear stars being created

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I know this is not a direct "science question", but a technical question for scientists/engineers. It is non-hypothetical, closed-ended, with a definite answer, and targeted at the science community at large, so I hope it will not run afoul of sub rules.

Anyway, I am aware of LiDAR used to scan large areas (rooms, buildings, etc), but am not aware of a way to capture a high resolution virtual model of something like a chess piece or acorn that wouldn't cost a million dollars. Is this within our technical capabilities at this time, outside of massive machines like MRIs?

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171

I was watching Blue Planet and being underwater hearing all of the clicks and whistles the dolphins were using made me wonder if all of the dolphins heard each other. Does one big pod(?) of dolphins make a huge beacon of sonar that allows each dolphin in the group to see what the others are seeing? If not and it’s comparable to “how can you tell when your mother or sister calls you?”, is it the frequency that each individual dolphin uses to determine which sound was theirs? Can they only hear one frequency at a time? If not, underwater must be so loud...

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How does an entire disease get wiped out? Do all the pathogens that cause the disease go extinct? Or does everyone in the human race become immune to that disease and it no longer has any effect on us? If it's the latter case, can diseases like smallpox and polio come back through mutation?

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I was thinking about this the other day. When I turn on my car radio, does it actually draw some power from the EM field, weakening it? Can this affect other receivers nearby, making the signal weaker for them?

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Ok, we have the best way ever to max out your habits. And it's free. And it's cool. And free. And cool. Really, you gotta try it.

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I was wondering specifically about languages with logographic/syllabic alphabets like Chinese, Japanese, or Korean. The structure of Hangul in particular seems like it would be harder to misspell or misread a character since they are (sorta) like an instruction manual for how to pronounce each individual syllable.

I don't speak any of those languages fluently though so I could be way off base here.

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I've wondered this for a while. Are the signals sent by nerves in our body "digital" meaning that they are simply on or off, or analog, sending an increased signal when more pressure or heat is applied?

If they were digital they'd send "more signal" by simply more nerves being activated.

If they're analog... then what do they look like?

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For example, in a group of 1000 people how many would have chromosomes other than XX or XY?

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Most rare earths (Cerium, Gadolinium, etc.) are mined in Inner Mongolia, and Mongolia proper has a lot of it too. What’s so special about the historic Mongol lands that gives them so much of these useful elements?

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