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Original Poster4 points · 4 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first two paragraphs of the linked academic press release here:

Anxious teens gain confidence by performing ‘off script’

Improvisational theater training can reduce fearfulness and anxiety among teens struggling with social interactions, a new University of Michigan study suggests.

School-based improv theater—performing without a script or preparation—may be effective for social phobias and anxiety disorders because it offers a low stigma, low cost and more accessible context for help in reducing these symptoms, say U-M researchers.

Journal Reference:

Peter Felsman, Colleen M. Seifert, Joseph A. Himle,

The use of improvisational theater training to reduce social anxiety in adolescents,

The Arts in Psychotherapy, 2018, ISSN 0197-4556,

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2018.12.001.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197455618301928

IF: https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/12054

Highlights

• Teens screened for social phobia showed reduced anxiety after improv training.

• Reduced anxiety was correlated with improved social skills, hope, and creativity.

• Students who were more engaged in the program showed the greatest benefit.

• Students agreed that improvisational training was useful in life outside of class.

• The non-clinical setting for improvisation programs may be advantageous.

Abstract:

Adolescents who have Social Anxiety Disorder do not receive the support they need. Improvisational theater involves regular exposure to social performance situations, and is recognized as a potential psycho-social support to enhance well-being and symptom reduction. The current study examines whether participating in a school-based improvisational theater program predicts reductions in symptoms of social anxiety. A total of 268 middle and high school students who participated in a ten-week school-based improvisational theater program completed surveys in a single group pre/post design. Adolescents who screened positive for social phobia at the beginning of class reported reduced symptoms of social anxiety at post-test. This change predicts increases in social skills, hope, creative self-efficacy, comfort performing for others, and willingness to make mistakes, along with marginal decreases in symptoms of depression. Given that no prior study has examined school-based improvisational theater training and its relationship to social anxiety, this work offers an important early contribution to the empirical literature on improvisation and mental health. School-based improvisational theater training offers an accessible, non-clinical alternative for addressing social anxiety problems among adolescents.

Original Poster1 point · 4 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first two paragraphs of the linked academic press release here:

Anxious teens gain confidence by performing ‘off script’

Improvisational theater training can reduce fearfulness and anxiety among teens struggling with social interactions, a new University of Michigan study suggests.

School-based improv theater—performing without a script or preparation—may be effective for social phobias and anxiety disorders because it offers a low stigma, low cost and more accessible context for help in reducing these symptoms, say U-M researchers.

Journal Reference:

Peter Felsman, Colleen M. Seifert, Joseph A. Himle,

The use of improvisational theater training to reduce social anxiety in adolescents,

The Arts in Psychotherapy, 2018, ISSN 0197-4556,

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2018.12.001.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197455618301928

Highlights

• Teens screened for social phobia showed reduced anxiety after improv training.

• Reduced anxiety was correlated with improved social skills, hope, and creativity.

• Students who were more engaged in the program showed the greatest benefit.

• Students agreed that improvisational training was useful in life outside of class.

• The non-clinical setting for improvisation programs may be advantageous.

Abstract:

Adolescents who have Social Anxiety Disorder do not receive the support they need. Improvisational theater involves regular exposure to social performance situations, and is recognized as a potential psycho-social support to enhance well-being and symptom reduction. The current study examines whether participating in a school-based improvisational theater program predicts reductions in symptoms of social anxiety. A total of 268 middle and high school students who participated in a ten-week school-based improvisational theater program completed surveys in a single group pre/post design. Adolescents who screened positive for social phobia at the beginning of class reported reduced symptoms of social anxiety at post-test. This change predicts increases in social skills, hope, creative self-efficacy, comfort performing for others, and willingness to make mistakes, along with marginal decreases in symptoms of depression. Given that no prior study has examined school-based improvisational theater training and its relationship to social anxiety, this work offers an important early contribution to the empirical literature on improvisation and mental health. School-based improvisational theater training offers an accessible, non-clinical alternative for addressing social anxiety problems among adolescents.

Original Poster42 points · 5 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

One year later, barbershop intervention continues to lower blood pressure

African-American men participating in a blood pressure reduction program implemented in barbershops continued to have significant improvements in their blood pressure in a twelve-month follow-up study, according to research published in the American Heart Association journal Circulation.

Journal Reference:

Sustainability of Blood Pressure Reduction in Black Barbershops

Ronald G. Victor , Ciantel A. Blyler , Ning Li , Kathleen Lynch , Norma B. Moy , Mohamad Rashid , L. Cindy Chang , Joel Handler , Jeffrey Brettler , Florian Rader , and Robert M. Elashoff

Originally published 17 Dec 2018

Circulation. 2018;0

DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038165

Link: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038165

Abstract

Background: We developed a new model of hypertension care for nonHispanic black men that links health promotion by barbers to medication management by American Society of Hypertension-certified pharmacists and demonstrated efficacy in a 6-month cluster-randomized trial. The marked reduction in systolic blood pressure (BP) seen at 6 months warranted continuing the trial through 12 months to test sustainability, a necessary precondition for implementation research.

Methods:We enrolled a cohort of 319 black male patrons with systolic BP ≥140 mmHg at baseline. Fifty-two Los Angeles County barbershops were assigned to either a pharmacist-led intervention or an active control group. In the intervention group, barbers promoted follow-up with pharmacists who prescribed BP medication under a collaborative practice agreement with patrons' primary care providers. In the control group, barbers promoted follow-up with primary care providers and lifestyle modification. After BP assessment at 6 months, the intervention continued with fewer in-person pharmacist visits to test whether the intervention effect could be sustained safely for 1 year while reducing pharmacist travel time. Final BP and safety outcomes were assessed in both groups at 12 months.

Results:At baseline, mean systolic BP was 152.4 mmHg in the intervention group and 154.6 mmHg in the control group. At 12 months, mean systolic BP fell by 28.6 mmHg (to 123.8 mmHg) in the intervention group and by 7.2 mmHg (to 147.4 mmHg) in the control group. The mean reduction was 20.8 mmHg greater in the intervention (95% CI, 13.9-27.7; P<0.0001). A BP <130/80 mmHg was achieved by 68.0% of the intervention group versus 11.0% of the control group (P<0.02). These new 12-month efficacy data are statistically indistinguishable from our previously reported 6-month data. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in either group over 12 months. Cohort retention at 12 months was 90% in both groups.

Conclusions:Among black male barbershop patrons with uncontrolled hypertension, health promotion by barbers resulted in large and sustained BP reduction over 12 months when coupled with medication management by American Society of Hypertension-certified pharmacists. Broad-scale implementation research is both justified and warranted.

Original Poster1 point · 5 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

One year later, barbershop intervention continues to lower blood pressure

African-American men participating in a blood pressure reduction program implemented in barbershops continued to have significant improvements in their blood pressure in a twelve-month follow-up study, according to research published in the American Heart Association journal Circulation.

Journal Reference:

Sustainability of Blood Pressure Reduction in Black Barbershops

Ronald G. Victor , Ciantel A. Blyler , Ning Li , Kathleen Lynch , Norma B. Moy , Mohamad Rashid , L. Cindy Chang , Joel Handler , Jeffrey Brettler , Florian Rader , and Robert M. Elashoff

Originally published 17 Dec 2018

Circulation. 2018;0

DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038165

Link: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038165

Abstract

Background: We developed a new model of hypertension care for nonHispanic black men that links health promotion by barbers to medication management by American Society of Hypertension-certified pharmacists and demonstrated efficacy in a 6-month cluster-randomized trial. The marked reduction in systolic blood pressure (BP) seen at 6 months warranted continuing the trial through 12 months to test sustainability, a necessary precondition for implementation research.

Methods:We enrolled a cohort of 319 black male patrons with systolic BP ≥140 mmHg at baseline. Fifty-two Los Angeles County barbershops were assigned to either a pharmacist-led intervention or an active control group. In the intervention group, barbers promoted follow-up with pharmacists who prescribed BP medication under a collaborative practice agreement with patrons' primary care providers. In the control group, barbers promoted follow-up with primary care providers and lifestyle modification. After BP assessment at 6 months, the intervention continued with fewer in-person pharmacist visits to test whether the intervention effect could be sustained safely for 1 year while reducing pharmacist travel time. Final BP and safety outcomes were assessed in both groups at 12 months.

Results:At baseline, mean systolic BP was 152.4 mmHg in the intervention group and 154.6 mmHg in the control group. At 12 months, mean systolic BP fell by 28.6 mmHg (to 123.8 mmHg) in the intervention group and by 7.2 mmHg (to 147.4 mmHg) in the control group. The mean reduction was 20.8 mmHg greater in the intervention (95% CI, 13.9-27.7; P<0.0001). A BP <130/80 mmHg was achieved by 68.0% of the intervention group versus 11.0% of the control group (P<0.02). These new 12-month efficacy data are statistically indistinguishable from our previously reported 6-month data. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in either group over 12 months. Cohort retention at 12 months was 90% in both groups.

Conclusions:Among black male barbershop patrons with uncontrolled hypertension, health promotion by barbers resulted in large and sustained BP reduction over 12 months when coupled with medication management by American Society of Hypertension-certified pharmacists. Broad-scale implementation research is both justified and warranted.

Original Poster12 points · 20 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

Men tend to perceive both polygyny — in which a man has more than one wife — and polyandry — in which a woman has more than one husband — as less troublesome than women, according to new research published in the journal Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences.

Journal Reference:

Widman, D. R., Philip, M. M., & Geher, G. (2018). Punishment of hypothetical polygamous marriages.

Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences. Advance online publication.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000155

Link: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-58624-001

Abstract

Parental investment theory suggests that differential reproductive investment has led the sexes to different mating strategies. In humans, men have the lesser investment and therefore tend to desire greater numbers of mates relative to women. One result of this could be that men would be more tolerant of polygamous marriages. The present study examined this hypothesis. Participants read 4 hypothetical vignettes describing individuals who were convicted of polygamy. The vignettes varied in the sex of the perpetrator and whether the marriage resulted in children or not. Participants were asked to suggest a sentence duration and to assess the severity of that sentence, as well as the severity of the transgression to the spouses, the institution of marriage, and in general. Participants also completed several scales relevant to reproduction. The results indicated that women assigned greater sentence durations and perceived the transgressions toward the institution of marriage and in general as more severe than men. In addition, the presence of children increased the troublesomeness of the polygamy. Finally, life history and the troublesomeness of the polygamy were positively correlated, but only in men. This is consistent with the male strategy of dads with slow life histories and cads with fast life histories. The lack of correlation in women may be an indication of smaller variation in reproduction relative to men, regardless of life history.

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